Functional Actives


- Skin Whitening


There are various conditions for skin whitening (see box below). Skin-whiteners are frequently used as depigmenting compounds such as tretinoin, arbutin, undecylenoyl-phenylalanine, hydroquinone, Vitamin C and Vitamin E.


1) UV-protection: Inhibition of melanin production by blocking UV light


2) Blocking of signal transfer: Inhibition of melanin the induces signal transfer produced by UV light


3) Inhibition of tyrosinase activity: Blocking of the production of melanin that induces enzyme activity


4) Inhibition of DOPA natural oxidation: Tyrosine inhibits the DOPA (produced by tyrosinase) and oxidation process into DOPA quinone and DOPA chrome.



Introduction to Melanogenesis

Human skin color originates from the outermost layer of skin, epidermis, where the pigment-producing cells, melanocytes, are localized to produce melanin. The distribution pattern of synthesized melanin by the melanocytes determines the actual color of the skin.


Figure 1. Diagram of Melanogenesis

Melanin is a black pigment of the skin, hair and eyes with distinctive coloration. It also plays a key role in the absorption of the free radicals generated within the cytoplasm and in shielding the host from various types of ionizing radiation, including UV light. Melanin is formed by a process called melanogenesis through a combination of enzymatically catalyzed and chemical reactions.



Biochemical pathway of Eumelanins and Pheomelanins synthesis

There are two types of melanin produced by melanocytes: black-to-brown eumelanin and yellow-to-reddish-brown pheomelanin. The biosynthetic pathway of melanogenesis related to melanin formation and the involvement of melanogenic enzymes are shown in Figure 1. Eumelanin and pheomelanins are both derived from the common precursor dopaquinone (DQ), which is formed following the oxidation of the common amino acid L-tyrosine by tyrosinase (TYR), which involves a transient intermediate DOPA and are then divided into eumelanogenesis or pheomelanogenesis.

Tyrosinase, the key enzyme, catalyzes tyrosine to DOPA and the oxidation of DOPA to DOPA quinine by the first step of melanogenesis. After the formation of DOPA quinone by tyrosinase, it is converted to DOPA chrome. If glutathione or cysteine reacts with DOPA quinone, pheomelanin is formed by converting cysteinyl DOPA. There are melanogenic enzymes, such as L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), chrome tautomerase (DCT) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), involved in eumelanogenesis. However, no specific enzymes that are involved in pheomelanogenesis have been found so far.



Publications

·Artemisinic Acid is a Regulator of Adipocyte Differentiation and C/EBP δ Expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 2012. 9999,1-12.


·Simple stability-indicating validated HPLC method for diosgenin in cosmeceutical formulations. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011, 3(suppl 5), 466-471.


·Whitening effect of α-bisabolol in Asian women. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 2010, 32(4), 299-303.



Patents

·Registration No.: 10-0879244-0000; Registration Date: Jan 12, 2009.


·Registration No.: 10-0901519-0000; Registration Date: Jun 01, 2009.


·Registration No.: 10-0902769-0000; Registration Date: Jun 08, 2009.



Our products

·Alpha-Melight (ECO) (KFDA Grade), DioSphere 2.0, FMLT Q-10 Sphere 1.0, Nano Bright, MelaCare-Oil, MelaNo, WhiteTen.