In normal tissues, cell proliferation is generally restricted to cells that replenish the tissue. Most tissues are thought to contain stem cells that have this replenishment function. Stem cells are self-renewing cells that can divide asymmetrically to yield a new stem cell and a progenitor cell. Progenitor cells may or may not undergo further divisions, ultimately leading to terminal differentiation. Once cells have terminally differentiated, they have a specialized function and are no longer dividing. Most tissues are made up of such non-dividing cells. Thus proliferation is normally tightly controlled so that only particular cells in the body are dividing.
The regulation of stem cell proliferation/ differentiation is critical for balance of cell cycle. Uncontrolled stem cell cause abnormal cell growth, which called cancer as well as related disease such as obesity. The control of proliferation/differentiation of stem cell is complicated and associated with multi-layered level. Thus, the regulation of upstream of proliferation/ differentiation can affect downstream of biological or physiological reaction. BioSpectrum have made attempt to discover active ingredients to control stem cell proliferation/differentiation. For example, adipogenesis takes place in adipose stem cell located in adipose tissue (figure below). Inhibitors for adipose stem cell proliferation can hamper downstream process like the recruitment and proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells, called preadipocytes, followed by the subsequent conversion of preadipocytes, or differentiation, into mature fat cells. Therefore, it eventually could show sliming effect.